• Benson Peter Irabor University of Lagos
  • OLUDARE O. OLUFOWOBI, PhD Department of Philosophy, Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria
  • DAMILOLA GRACE OLA-OBITUSIN Department of Educational Foundations and Counselling Psychology, Lagos State University. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2163-9674
Keywords: African development, Colonialism, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Pedagogy, Political Philosophy


The nature and problems or causes usually adduced for African underdevelopment
as well as the cure for it have acquired the character of what Claude Ake calls
‘technicism’ – a situation where Western social scientists are causal assessors and
solutions to Africa’s woes. The consequence of this is that close to no attention has
been given to how indigenous pedagogy can assist in the evolution of a framework
to tackle the menace of underdevelopment. By admitting the method of
philosophical analysis which thrives on the critical assessment or exposition of
ideas and concepts, we expound Nnamdi Azikiwe’s reflections that have
implications for the pedagogy that can engender a self-reliant template for African
development. We focus on the triad principles of eclecticism, pragmatism and neowelfarism
in his reflections to extrapolate ideas that can propel African
development. It is based on the plausibility of Azikiwe’s thoughts on education that
we submit the urgency for Africans to emerge from the challenges of development
by focusing more on inward-driven ideas that are original and indigenous to them
yet applicable in other climes, non-African.


Akinsanya, Patrick Philosophizing About Education, Lagos: University of Lagos Press and Bookshop Ltd, 2015.
Azenarbor, Godwin “Sustainability of University Education in Nigeria: A Philosophical Discourse on Problem and Revival Strategies.” In African Studies Monographs, edited by Ogbinaka, O.M. no.VI. Lagos: OnosomegbowhoOgbinaka Publishers Limited, 2005.
Azikiwe, Nnamdi. Ideology for Africa: Capitalism, Socialism, or Welfarism? Lagos: Macmillan, 1980.
_______, Nnamdi. “From Tribe to Nation.” In Themes in African Social and Political Thought, edited by Onigu, Otite Malta: Fourth Dimension Publishers, 1978.
_______, Nnamdi. “Hope for a Frustrated People.” In Address made by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, Chairman of the Provisional Council of the University of Nigeria, at the inaugural meeting of the Council, 3rd March, 1960.
_______,, Nnamdi. Zik A selected from the Speeches of Nnamdi Azikiwe, London: Cambridge University Press, 1961.
_______, Nnamdi. “From a speech delivered at the Methodist Boys’ High School, Lagos, in November, 1934, on his return from the United States en route to Onitsha, his home-town.” In Zik A selected from the Speeches of Nnamdi Azikiwe, London: Cambridge University Press, 1961.
_______,Nnamdi. Renascent Africa, London: Frank Cass, 1937.

Chimakonam, Jonathan. “Where Are We in the Global Poverty Measurement?: The Human Minimum Development Model as a Veritable Option.” In Journal of Asian and African Studies, 2019 DOI: 10.1177/0021909619885961.
Enoh, A.O. (1996). Main Currents in Nigeria Educational Thought, Jos: Midland Press, Limited.
Fafunwa, Bab. “The Beginnings and the Evolution of University Education in Nigeria.” In 50 Years of University in Nigeria: Evolution, Achievements, and Future Directions, edited by Okojie, J., Oloyede, I., and Obanya, Pai, Ilorin: National Universities Commission, 2010.
Irabor, Benson “Towards A Conceptual Decolonization of “Bastardized” African Value.” In Crawford University Journal of Business and Social Sciences, VII, no.1&2, (2017): 148-167.
Irabor, Benson “Proverbs and Moral Development in Africa: An Exploration of the Parallels between Culture and Education.” In Unilag Journal of Humanities, 6(1), (2018): 139-160. Retrieved from http://jepa.unilag.edu.ng/index.php/ujh/article/view/324,2019.
Iroegbu, Pantaleon. Enwisdomization & African Philosophy, Two Selected Essays, Owerri: International Universities Press, 1994.
Iroegbu, Pantaleon and Izibili, Matthew. Kpim of Democracy: Thematic Introduction to Socio-Political Philosophy, Benin-City: Ever Blessed Publishers, 2004.
Iroegbu, Pantaleon “Philosophy of Education: Ethics of Teaching profession.” In Kpim of Ethics: General, Special & Professional, edited by Iroegbu Pantaleon and Echekube Anthony, Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books, 2005.
Kanu, Anthony. “The Political Philosophy of Nnamdi Azikwe as an Ideology for Political Regeneration for Nigeria.” In Professor Bassey Andah Journal of Cultural Studies, 3, 2010.
Kanu, Anthony. “The Political Philosophy of Azikiwe as an Ideology of Political Regeneration for Nigeria” accessed on 12th March, 2020. https://www.academicexcellencesociety.com/the_political_phylosophy_of_nnamdi_azikiwe.pdf
Keita, Lansana. “Philosophy and Development: On the Problematic African Development – A Diachronic Analysis.” In Philosophy and African Development: Theory and Practice, edited by Keita, Lansana, Dakar: CODESRIA, 2005.
Nyerere, Julius. Freedom and Socialism, Dar es Salam: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Nzimiro, Ikenna. “Zikism and Social Thought in the Nigerian Pre-independence Period, 1944-1950” in Themes in African Social and Political Thought, edited by O. Onigu, Malta: Fourth Dimension Publishers, 1978.
Ofuasia, Emmanuel “Teaching Morality and Creative Thinking via Modern Technology at the Pre-Tertiary Level.” In African Moral Character and Creative Thinking Principles, edited by Unah, Jim and Ibrahim, A.Z. 2, Ile-Ife: Obafemi Awolowo University Press, (2019): 109-119.
Okafor, Nduka The Development of Universities in Nigeria, London: Longman Groups Ltd., 1971.
Okolo, Chukwudum. African Social and Political Philosophy, Nsukka: Fulladu, 1993.
Omoregbe, Joseph. Socio-Political Philosophy: A Systematic and Historical Studies, Lagos: Joja Educational Publishers, 2010.
Oputa, C’fine. Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe: Africa’s Foremost Philosopher of Education, Port-Harcourt: C’FINEOPUTA International Company, 2018.
Ozoigbo, Bonaventure. “African Theories of Development and the Reality of Underdevelopment.” In International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, 2016.
Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Dares Salaam: B’ogle Overture, 1971.
Unegbe, Basil. “Philosophy and National Development.” In Foundations of Philosophy and Logic, edited by Udoidem, Iniobong, Lagos: African Heritage Research and Publications, 2002.