Nasara Journal of Philosophy <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;">The Nasara Journal of Philosophy (NAJOP) is an international peer-reviewed journal of the Department of Philosophy, Federal University of Lafia. It is an interdisciplinary journal established to provide academics and researchers the desired platform to publish their latest research findings to a wider audience for purposes of advocacy and development. As part of the quality assurance of NAJOP, the utmost criterion for publication of articles is less about the area, but the quality of the study. As a consequence, NAJOP publishes researches in all areas of Philosophy as well as studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences.</p> Department of Philosophy, Federal University of Lafia en-US Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2630-6751 THE HUMANITIES, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: IN SEARCH OF A HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HUMAN PERSON AND SOCIETY – 21ST CENTURY AFRICA IN PERSPECTIVE <p>This paper aims to consider the balance of the humanities, science and technology<br>as twenty-first-century Africa searches for a holistic development for the human<br>person and society. The arguments represented in the essay and the position<br>reached thereof derive from the consideration that the complexity of nature, the<br>hydra-headedness of reality, the heterogeneity and difference exhibited by the<br>physical world and the otherness of the others, evident in the world confronting<br>the human condition, demand that science and technology need to combine effort<br>with the humanities to achieve a holistic development for the human person and<br>society, given the challenges of twenty-first-century Africa. Thus, a selected<br>preference for technology, for instance, would not be a complete remedy for<br>present-day Africa. Specifically, the paper shows that: (i) the use of education,<br>stretching back to the point of the great divide in the understanding of the aim of<br>education, insists on the balance between education as instrumental and education<br>as an end in itself; (ii) there is a nexus between the humanities and praxis; that is,<br>the humanities are also practical and can be instrumental; (iii) a key proposal for<br>a holistic development for Africa today is that of holding the rationality of the<br>sciences, on the one hand, and the morality of the humanities, on the other hand,<br>in a fruitful balance. The paper adopts the philosophical method of analysis, which<br>consists of conceptual clarifications, critical interrogation and constructivism, to<br>arrive the conclusion therein.</p> Isaac E Ukpokolo Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-13 2020-09-13 5 1 1 13 IN SEARCH OF THE CANONS OF KNOWLEDGE AND RATIONALITY AND THE POSTMODERNIST REVIEW OF THE TRADITIONAL TASK OF EPISTEMOLOGY <p>The position of this paper is that the postmodernist onslaught on traditional<br>epistemology does not stand rigorous questioning. It actually committed a<br>conceptual suicide. The task of traditional epistemology, represented in the<br>discussions of the modern period, is essentially to search for and discover those<br>fundamental general principles and procedures that could form a universal and<br>foundational theoretical framework for knowledge and rationality. This quest for<br>a single reference point was opposed by the postmodern thought as an impossible<br>venture, given the problem of justification. An alternative epistemological<br>programme was, therefore, presented by figures in the postmodern agenda. This<br>was marked by a rejection of homogeneity, universality and foundation, and the<br>preference for heterogeneity, plurality and difference. The postmodern agenda<br>presents an epistemology of chaos to philosophy, thereby falling short of the<br>Archimedean point of view as well as denying a universalist form of epistemology<br>in preference for yet another universalist epistemology. The paper adopts the<br>philosophical method of analysis, critical evaluation and reconstruction to bring<br>to the fore the very weaknesses of the postmodern agenda. At the heart of the paper<br>is the thesis that a viable epistemology for the contemporary human condition is a<br>holistic and integral universality.</p> Dr Michael Sunday Sasa Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-13 2020-09-13 5 1 14 25 EPISTEMIC LUCK, SCEPTICISM, AND JUSTIFICATION RE-CONSIDERED <p>This paper aims to re-articulate the problem of epistemic scepticism; this time,<br>from the perspective of the phenomenon of epistemic luck, and propose a plausible<br>approach toward its resolution. Epistemic scepticism is a perennial issue in the<br>epistemological parlance that visibly constitutes significant aspects of almost all<br>the discourse in epistemology. Its foothold is the inability of epistemologists to<br>provide a satisfactory theory of justification that meets the criteria of cognitive<br>achievement on the part of the agent, against the fact that the agent’s belief is a<br>product of luck. Given that genuine knowledge is incompatible with luck, as<br>purported by traditional epistemology, how do we account for malign varieties of<br>epistemic luck, like the veritic and reflective epistemic luck that seems to be part<br>of our epistemic practices? Anti-luck epistemologists, like Duncan Pritchard,<br>propose that we can resolve this seeming impasse of epistemic luck, scepticism<br>and justification by considering the positive contributions of internalism and<br>externalism in resolving the problem of malign epistemic luck in knowledge<br>acquisition. This paper is a critical analysis of the issue of epistemic scepticism.<br>Following the expository and dialectical methods of analysis, we evaluate the<br>discourse on epistemic scepticism resulting from luck and the demand for<br>epistemic justification and conclude that a consideration of the complementarity<br>of internalist/externalist debate would provide a plausible approach to epistemic<br>scepticism and the problem of epistemic luck.</p> Anselm Kole JIMOH Peace Omotsola JEMIBOR Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-13 2020-09-13 5 1 26 42 THE ONTOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF POSITIVIST EPISTEMOLOGY <p>The central argument of this paper is that what is referred to as positivist or<br>empiricist epistemology is a superstructure resting on the substructure of a certain<br>metaphysical orientation – materialism. The paper traces this point from several<br>premises informing the activities of scientific inquiries as well as figures in the<br>discourse. Epistemology, it is understood, is the search for those general,<br>foundational normative principles and procedures for arriving at reliable and<br>indubitable knowledge. At the heart of the traditional project of epistemology,<br>however, is the problem of justification, which neither the foundationalist nor<br>coherentist can resolve conclusively in an exhaustive sense. And so, the scientific<br>image of knowledge presented by the positivists is that, if we are to arrive at any<br>reliable knowledge of objective reality, then, we must conduct our enquiries in the<br>light of the general laws of science and the scientific method. However, the<br>materialist's orientation that underlies the scientific image of knowledge presents<br>an intractable difficulty. One of such is that it is hard to establish the a priori,<br>necessary, normative intervention of the human mind guided by free will. In other<br>words, the human search for knowledge is deterministic, and so cannot be<br>normative. This raises the question of the normative status of positivist<br>epistemology. The paper employs a philosophical method of analysis, conceptual<br>clarifications and reconstructivism to arrive at the thesis defended therein.</p> Dr Michael Sunday Sasa Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-13 2020-09-13 5 1 43 53 BETWEEN PLATO AND FREUD’S THEORY OF HUMAN NATURE <p>This paper discusses Plato and Sigmund Freud’s conception of human nature. It<br>is a critical analytic discussion of the fundamental relationship between the two<br>philosophers’ understanding of a human person. The paper observes that Plato<br>and Freud’s account of human nature and other existing scholarly accounts of the<br>subject matter underscore the perennial attempts by human beings to organize<br>their understanding of the cosmos; to figure out their relation to God, nature, and<br>other humans; and to uncover the possibilities, meanings and purposes of human<br>life as a basis for improving the destiny of the human person. The paper contends<br>that, although there are distinctions and similarities in Plato and Freud’s<br>conceptions, they do not capture the symbiotic relationship of individuality and<br>relationality that characterises human nature as a multi-dimensional concept, and<br>that where they scarcely do, they do not recognize the equal importance that the<br>two have. In its critical analytic adventure, the paper underscores this symbiotic<br>relationship and equality of importance, as a basis for underpinning the<br>ambivalence, dynamism, solidarity and distinctions in the character and<br>individual/collective disposition to issues that permeate human existence, as we<br>constantly experience in our society.</p> Dr OYEKUNLE OLUWAYEMISI ADEGBOYEGA UWAEZUOKE PRECIOUS OBIOHA Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-13 2020-09-13 5 1 54 68 CONTEXTUALISING PAUL WARREN TAYLOR’S BIOCENTRIC EGALITARIANISM AS A VIABLE REMEDY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CRISES <p>The paper examined biocentric egalitarianism as construed by Paul Warren<br>Taylor. The paper adopted a qualitative research design. Data were sourced from<br>books, journals, periodicals and the internet. The expository, analytical and<br>evaluative methods were used. The expository method excavated the thoughts of<br>Taylor. The analytical method presented the thoughts of Taylor on biocentric<br>egalitarianism in detail, while the evaluative method assessed his thoughts vis-àvis<br>current environmental crises. The work found out that environmental ethics<br>has played an important part in challenging the historically dominant and deeprooted<br>anthropocentrism (human-centeredness) of conventional ethics, but the<br>ethics of biocentrism (life-centredness), with particular reference to Paul Taylor,<br>in his 1986 book, titled, Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics,<br>argues that all living things have inherent worth and should be respected as such.<br>For Taylor, to recognise this inherent worth in all living things and give them due<br>consideration is to have “respect for nature” (which covers all life forms). The<br>implication is that there is a need for a proper attitudinal change to nature, making<br>of laws, and effectual environmental policies that are pragmatic in quelling<br>environmental crises. The work, therefore, concluded that Taylor's biocentric<br>egalitarianism is worthy of attention, with the target of resolving environmental<br>issues and also articulating new environmental concerns and considerations.</p> Dr DAMIAN TERSOO ANYAM GODWIN AGENA Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-13 2020-09-13 5 1 69 81 AN APPRAISAL OF ETHICAL RELATIVISM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS <p>Ethical relativism is a theory in ethics, which holds that morality is culture-dependent<br>and thus culturally validated. This study is a critical inquiry into this doctrine and its<br>implications on environmental ethics and sustainability. It presents the doctrine of<br>ethical relativism and draws attention to what appears appealing in this theory. It<br>then focuses critically on the problems associated with it that makes it unappealing.<br>The study argues that the differences in cultural beliefs and norms, which ethical<br>relativists portray to exist in different cultures, are exaggerated since they are not as<br>different in values as they would want us to believe. The study criticizes this view of<br>ethical relativism by arguing against some of its canons. Thereafter, it attempts a brief<br>explication of what environmental ethics is, and attend to the negative implications of<br>ethical relativism on environmental ethics and environmental sustainability. It argues<br>among others that ethical relativism would lead people astray in dealing with the most<br>disturbing questions and challenges in environmental ethics, and in accounting for<br>how various problems of sustainability can be genuinely brought under control. It<br>concludes that ethical relativism cannot establish a safe human relation with nature.</p> FELIX AYEMERE AIROBOMAN Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 1 82 100 POPPER AND THE DEMOCRATIC SPACE IN NIGERIAN POLITICS: AN ETHICAL ANALYSIS <p>The political space in Nigeria is always charged due to the absence of democratic<br>ethics by politicians who speak of change without any commitment to such a<br>promise or genuine effort towards improving the social and economic structures<br>of the society. The political space favours party candidature and interests as<br>against independent candidature during an election, which makes the allegiance<br>or responsibility of the former to be, first, to the political party and hardly about<br>the common good. This paper demonstrates a practical suggestion to the problem<br>through Popper’s idea of creative politics, which culminates in the principle that<br>a government can be dismissed by a majority vote. Popper’s preference for<br>democracy is because it is built on choice-making. The choice the electorate makes<br>of their leaders is measured by their socio-economic reality. However, the<br>difficulty with this style of democracy is not “who should rule?”, but how the state<br>is to be constituted so that bad rulers can be got rid of without bloodshed and<br>violence. It is only a true leader with a powerful political will that can make the<br>greatest impact on the lives of the people. The democracy that allows such<br>individuals does not place emphasis on the rule of the people, but of party majority<br>and loyalists. The paper argues that a democracy that is truly a rule of, by and for<br>the people is difficult to achieve within a political space that emphasizes party<br>allegiance. Therefore, it concludes that Popper’s idea of creative politics, which<br>favours the idea of independent candidates during an election, is a valuable<br>panacea.</p> Terfa Kahaga Anjov Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 1 101 114 THE SPECTRE OF DEMOCRACY AND GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA <p>In Nigeria, democracy is believed to have replaced military juntas. But<br>democracy, as practised in the country, has not been different from the tenets of<br>past military regimes. As such, scholars have argued whether present politics and<br>governance in Nigeria, with its character of suppression, repression and neglect<br>of democratic principles – rule of law, accountability, adequate representation,<br>public opinion, etc. – can be classified as democracy. This paper analytically<br>examines the irony of democratic governance and the challenges of the<br>democratization of Nigeria. Along this lane, the paper unravels the historicity,<br>spectre, poor state, consequences and contents of Nigerian democratic<br>governance to determine whether they are really in consonance with expected<br>democratic principles. The paper as well proffers solutions towards the<br>democratization of the Nigerian political space. However, it identifies that<br>democracy as purported in Nigerian politics and governance is not wholly massesoriented,<br>but inimical to the wellbeing and survival of the larger population. The<br>paper, thus, concludes that democratic governance in contemporary Nigeria is<br>grossly deficient and below global expectations, for it is inadequately true to<br>practical democratic political principles and responsibilities.</p> Gregory Emeka Chinweuba Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 1 115 135 NNAMDI AZIKIWE’S ECLECTICISM, PRAGMATISM, NEOWELFARISM AND THE QUEST FOR A PEDAGOGICAL AND SELF-RELIANT TEMPLATE FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT <p>The nature and problems or causes usually adduced for African underdevelopment<br>as well as the cure for it have acquired the character of what Claude Ake calls<br>‘technicism’ – a situation where Western social scientists are causal assessors and<br>solutions to Africa’s woes. The consequence of this is that close to no attention has<br>been given to how indigenous pedagogy can assist in the evolution of a framework<br>to tackle the menace of underdevelopment. By admitting the method of<br>philosophical analysis which thrives on the critical assessment or exposition of<br>ideas and concepts, we expound Nnamdi Azikiwe’s reflections that have<br>implications for the pedagogy that can engender a self-reliant template for African<br>development. We focus on the triad principles of eclecticism, pragmatism and neowelfarism<br>in his reflections to extrapolate ideas that can propel African<br>development. It is based on the plausibility of Azikiwe’s thoughts on education that<br>we submit the urgency for Africans to emerge from the challenges of development<br>by focusing more on inward-driven ideas that are original and indigenous to them<br>yet applicable in other climes, non-African.</p> Benson Peter Irabor OLUDARE O. OLUFOWOBI, PhD DAMILOLA GRACE OLA-OBITUSIN Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 1 136 155 POWER AND AUTHORITY IN NIGERIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPRAISAL <p>The concepts of power and authority are central in political systems and to<br>governments. In Nigeria, these concepts are frequently used by politicians in their<br>political discourses without an adequate understanding of their proper meaning<br>and application. Many scholars and philosophers often use power and authority<br>interchangeably as though they are synonymous. In fact, in Nigeria, power seems<br>to be confused with authority. The inability to clearly and adequately understand<br>the meaning, theoretical and practical demands of the concepts as well as their<br>underlying differences, seems to be responsible for their improper exercise and<br>abuses in our clime. This paper, therefore, examines the concepts of power and<br>authority in order to establish their differences as well as their demands on those<br>that seek to wield and exercise them. The research exposes the acquisition of<br>power and authority, their usage in Nigeria as well as their influences on the<br>development of the country. It highlights certain practices in the Nigerian polity<br>that fosters the abuse of power and authority and insists that political power must<br>be exercised within the bounds of morality otherwise it will be a deadly weapon in<br>the hands of rulers against the ruled. In conclusion, the paper proposes that<br>anyone in authority must show tremendous responsibility and be aware of the<br>boundaries of their authority in order not to exceed such limits.</p> Maraizu Elechi IBIFURO ROBERT JAJA Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 1 156 170 A PHILOSOPHICAL APPRAISAL OF RELIGION AND ITS PRACTICE IN NIGERIA <p>In recent times, there has been an increase in the uncontrollable trend of bloody<br>violence, resulting in senseless killings, maiming of innocent lives, and destruction<br>of properties, mostly in the name of religion. This violation of human right also<br>comes in form of sexual assault, brainwashing, and inordinate affection for<br>material possessions, with their concomitant evil making religion one of the<br>avenues through which man's inhumanity to man is displayed in an unquantifiable<br>dimension. Hence, suggesting that the relevance of religion is to dehumanize man,<br>eroding his dignity, which constitutes a disablement to societal development.<br>However, the goal of religion is to add value to human life and make him worthy<br>of serving God. Religion should centre on dignifying human lives by giving<br>credence to man as "crown of God's creation" rather than a lamb for religious<br>sacrifice. The problem of religion-related conflagrations could largely be<br>attributed to a misconception of what religion entails or a misinterpretation of its<br>goals. Hence, in this paper, a redefinition of the goal of religion is proposed to<br>accommodate man's dignity in the scheme of things. The paper examines through<br>phenomenological method some religious clashes and moral decadence in<br>religious practices in Nigeria and thereafter analyzes critically how the<br>restructuring of religious practices through the tenets of African humanism can<br>advance the course of things in Nigeria.</p> Olubanjo Olufunso Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 1 171 186 NAJOP VOL 5, No. 1 TABLE OF CONTENT & PRELIMINARY PAGES <p>TABLE OF CONTENT</p> NAJOP (Nasara Journal of Philosophy) Copyright (c) 2020 Nasara Journal of Philosophy 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 1 i iii