Characterization and Optimization of Transparent and Conductive ITO Films Deposited on n and p-types Silicon Substrates

  • A. K. Isiyaku Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, P.M.B 2339, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • A. H. Ali Optical Fiber Laser Technology Group, Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology Pagoh Educational Hub, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 84600 Pagoh, Johor Malaysia
  • S. G. Abdu Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, P.M.B 2339, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • M. Tahan Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • N. A. Raship Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, 57000 Kem Sungai Basi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • A. S. Bakri Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • N. Nayan Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Keywords: ITO, Post-Annealing Treatment, Figure of Merit, n-type Si, p-type Si, Band Gap

Abstract

The characteristics of enhanced transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films on n-type and p-type Si substrates grown by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering were investigated.  The structural, optical and electrical properties of the films after annealing at different temperatures ranging from 300°C to 600°C in air were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals an amorphous structure for the as-deposited films of both the n-type and p-type Si. The annealed films exhibited a polycrystalline nature with preferential peaks orientation along (222) and (400) crystalline directions. Atomic force microscope (AFM) results indicate smooth surface morphology with increasing roughness as the annealing temperature increases. The surface roughness of the ITO films on the  p-type Si was high (6.65 nm) at 500°C and very good microstructures on both Si types were obtained at 500°C. Optical transmittance is enhanced from 89.1 % for the as-deposited film to 95.7 % for film annealed at 500°C in the visible range. ITO films on n-type and p-type Si demonstrate a substantial reduction in their electrical resistivity and sheet resistance with increasing annealing temperature. The ITO/p-Si structure exhibits a low resistivity of 2.45 × 10-5 Ω-cm compared to 7.46 × 10-5 Ω-cm for ITO/n-Si structure. The films performance showed a figure of merit of 14.68 × 10-3 Ω-1 for ITO/n-type Si and 44.74 × 10-3 Ω-1 for ITO/p-type at 500°C indicating that the optimized ITO films on p-type Si can be a promising ITO/p-Si heterojunction for silicon solar cells.

References

K. Ryu, Y-J. Lee, M. Ju, H. Choi, B. Kim, J. Lee, W. Oh, K. Choi, N. Balaji & J. Yi, ``Optimal Indium Tin Oxide Layer as Anti Reflection Coating for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell with Shallow Emitter", Thin Solid Films 521 (2012) 50.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, J. H. Kafafi & D. B. Chrisey, ``Electrical, Optical, and Structural Properties of Indium–Tin–Oxide Thin Films", J. Appl. Phys. 86 (1999) 6451.

bibitem{r3} A. K. Isiyaku, A. H. Ali & N. Nayan, ``Structural Optical and Electrical Properties of a Transparent Conductive ITO/Al–Ag/ITO Multilayer Contact", Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 11 (2020) 697.

Z. Ghorannevis, E. Akbarnejad & M. Ghoranneviss, ``Structural and Morphological Properties of ITO Thin Films Grown by Magnetron Sputtering", J. Theor. Appl. Phys. 9 (2015) 285.

A. H. Ali, A. S. Abu Bakar, & Z. Hassan, ``Improved Optoelectronics Properties of ITO-based Transparent Conductive Electrodes with the Insertion of Ag/Ni Under-Layer", Appl. Surf. Sci. 315 (2014) 387.

Y. Yamamoto, ``Thin-film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells", JSAP Int. 7 (2003) 12.

T. Maruyama & K. Fukui, ``Preparation and Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Films Prepared by Chemical Vapour Deposition", Thin Solid Films 203 (1991) 297.

T. Y. Yong, T. Y. Tou, H. K. Yow & G. Safran, ``Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Deposition of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films in Different Gases and Organic Light Emitting Device Applications", Thin Solid Films 516 (2008) 4267.

C. Guillén & J. Herrero, ``TCO/metal/TCO Structures for Energy and Flexible Electronics", Thin Solid Films 520 (2011) 1.

T. Minami, ``Present Status of Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin-Film Development for Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) Substitutes", Thin Solid Films 516 (2008) 5822.

J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok & J. P. Zhenga, ``Low Resistivity Indium Tin Oxide Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition Low Resistivity", Appl. Phys. Lett. 63 (1993) 1.

S. Marikkannu et al., ``Effect of Substrate Temperature on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Thin Films Deposited by Jet Nebulizer Spray Pyrolysis and Solar Cell Application", Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 27 (2014) 562.

A. Subrahmanyam & N. Balasubramanian, ``Studies of the Photovoltaic Behaviour of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/Silicon Junctions Prepared by the Reactive Thermal Evaporation Technique", Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7 (1992) 324.

M. R. Kiyani & Y. S. Jalili, ``The Effect of Varying Temperature and O2 Flow Rate in ex situ Annealed Tin-doped Indium for Fabrication of Commercial Grade Indium Tin Oxide", J. Theor. Appl. Phys. 8 (2014) 109.

R. Balasundaraprabhu, E. V. Monakhov, N. Muthukumarasamy, O. Nilsen & B. G. Svensson, ``Effect of Heat Treatment on ITO Film Properties and ITO/p-Si Interface", Mater. Chem. Phys. 114 (2009) 425.

F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin & A. N. Tiwari, ``Comparative Study of ITO Layers Deposited by DC and RF Magnetron Sputtering at Room Temperature", J. Non. Cryst. Solids. 352 (2006) 1466.

A. K. Isiyaku, A. H. Ali, R. A. Ahmad & B. Zulaika, ``Optoelectronic Simulation Properties of Transparent Conducting Indium Tin Oxide for Solar Cell Application", J. Sci. Technol. 9 (2017) 49.

A. H. Ali, Z. Hassan & A. Shuhaimi, ``Enhancement of Optical Transmittance and Electrical Resistivity of Post-annealed ITO Thin Films RF Sputtered on Si", Appl. Surf. Sci. 443 (2018) 544.

M. Gulen, G. Yildirim, S. Bal, A. Varilci, I. Belenli & M. Oz, ``Role of Annealing Temperature on Microstructural and Electro-optical Properties of ITO Films Produced by Sputtering", J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24 (2013) 467.

M. H. Rein, ``Sputter Deposition and Characterization of Indium-Tin-Oxide Thin Films and Indium-Tin-Oxide/Silicon Interfaces for Silicon Solar Cell Application", Institute for Energy Technology, Instituttveien, Kjeller, Norway 18 (2015).

C. G. Granqvist & A. Hultake, ``Transparent and Conducting ITO films: New Developments and Applications", Thin Solid Films. 411 (2002) 1.

H. Kobayashi, T. Ishida, K. Nakamura, Y. Nakato & H. Tsubomura, ``Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Films Prepared by the Electron Beam Evaporation Method in Relation to Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide/Silicon Oxide/Silicon Junction Solar Cells", J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992) 5288.

J. Herrero & C. Guille, ``Influence of Oxygen in the Deposition and Annealing Atmosphere on the Characteristics of ITO Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering at Room Temperature", Vacuum. 80 (2006) 615.

S. H. Keshmiri, M. Rezaee-roknabadi & S. Ashok, ``A Novel Technique for Increasing Electron Mobility of Indium-Tin-Oxide Transparent Conducting Films", Thin Solid Films. 418 (2002) 167.

Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao & T. Wang, ``Effects of Heat Treatment on Properties of ITO Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering", Vacuum. 75 (2004) 183.

N. Meshram, C. Loka, K. R. Park & K. S. Lee, ``Enhanced Transmittance of ITO/Ag(Cr)/ITO (IAI) Multi-layered Thin Films by High Temperature Annealing", Mater. Lett. 145 (2015) 120.

M. D. Kumar, Y. C. Park & J. Kim, ``Impact of Thin Metal Layer on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Indium-Doped-Tin Oxide and Aluminum-Doped-Zinc Oxide Layers", Superlattices Microstruct. 82 (2015) 499.

M. Balestrieri, D. Pysch, J. P. Becker, M. Hermle, W. Warta & S. W. Glunz, ``Characterization and Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Films for Heterojunction Solar Cells", Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 95 (2011) 2390.

F. Zhu, K. Zhang, E. Guenther & C. S. Jin, ``Optimized Indium Tin Oxide Contact for Organic Light Emitting Diode Applications", Thin Solid Films 363 (2000) 314.

L. J. Meng & M. P. Dos Santos, ``Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Films Prepared by RF Reactive Magnetron Sputtering at Different Substrate Temperature", Thin Solid Films 322 (1998) 56.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi & D. B. Chrisey, ``Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films for Organic Light-emitting Devices", Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (1999) 3444.

T. Guang-Lei, H. Hong-Bo & S. Jian-Da, ``Effect of Microstructure of TiO2 Thin Films on Optical Band Gap Energy", Chinese Phys. Lett. 22 (2005) 1787.

A. K. Isiyaku & S. B. Ghoshal, ``Photoluminescence Spectral Features of Silicon Nanowires", J. Teknol. 2 (2016) 153.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer & A. P. Alivisatos, ``Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cells", Science 295 (2002) 2425.

G. Haacke, ``New Figure of Merit for Transparent Conductors", J. Appl. Phys. 47 (1976) 4086.

A. K. Isiyaku, A. H. Ali & N. Nayan, ``Effects of Laser Radiation on the Optical and Electrical Properties of ITO Thin Films Deposited by RF", Universal J. Electric. Electron. Eng. 6 (2009) 1.

Published
2020-12-04
How to Cite
Isiyaku, A. K., Ali, A. H., Abdu, S. G., Tahan, M., Raship, N. A., Bakri, A. S., & Nayan, N. (2020). Characterization and Optimization of Transparent and Conductive ITO Films Deposited on n and p-types Silicon Substrates. Physics Memoir - Journal of Theoretical & Applied Physics, 2(1), 15-24. Retrieved from https://journals.fulafia.edu.ng/index.php/pmjtap/article/view/91
Section
Material Science, Photonics & Solid State Physics